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'''Mariah Carey''' (born [[March 27]] [[1970]]) is an [[United States|America]]n [[rhythm and blues|R&B]] and [[pop music|pop]] [[singer-songwriter]], [[record producer]] and occasional [[actor|actress]]. She made her debut in 1990 under the guidance of [[Columbia Records]] executive [[Tommy Mottola]], and became both the most successful and best-selling artist for that decade, according to ''[[Billboard magazine|Billboard]]'' magazine and the [[World Music Awards]].
After marrying Mottola in 1993, albums such as ''[[Music Box (album)|Music Box]]'' (1993) and ''[[Daydream (album)|Daydream]]'' (1995) consolidated her position as one of Columbia's most successful acts. Carey separated from Mottola in 1997, and her proceeding albums presented her in an attempt to distance herself from the career trajectory that he had plotted for her; they presented a more overtly sexual and [[hip hop music|hip hop]]-oriented sound and image. In 2001, issues between Carey and her label executives led her to part ways with them, and she signed a lucrative deal with [[Virgin Records]] shortly after. However, she was dropped the following year after a highly publicised physical breakdown and the notoriously poor reception of ''[[Glitter (film)|Glitter]]'', her film and soundtrack project. After signing to [[Island Def Jam Records]] in 2002, she returned to the forefront of popular music in 2005 with the success of her ninth studio album ''[[The Emancipation of Mimi]]''.
Since her debut, Carey has scored seventeen number-one singles on the U.S Billboard charts, the most by a solo female artist. In 2003, she was declared "the most successful" and "number-one selling female artist in the history of recorded music" by the [[IFPI]].<ref>[ 2003 World Music Awards show] Video clip. Retrieved on [[February 26]] [[2006]].</ref> She is also well-known for her five-[[octave]] [[vocal range]], where the use of the [[whistle register]] and [[melisma]] are central features of her singing style.
==Biography and music career==
===Early life and discovery===
Carey was born in [[Huntington (CDP), New York|Huntington]], [[New York]]. She is the third and youngest child of [[Patricia Hickey]], a former [[opera]] singer and voice coach of [[Irish American]] [[Roman Catholic]] extraction, and Alfred Roy Carey (né Núñez), an [[aerospace engineering|aeronautical engineer]] of mixed [[African American]] and [[Hispanic]]-[[Venezuela]]n descent. She was named after the song "They Call the Wind Maria<!-- please do not edit this, as the official spelling of the song is "Maria" -->", from the musical ''[[Paint Your Wagon]]''. Carey's older brother Morgan suffered from [[epilepsy]], while her older sister Alison developed a [[drug addiction]] and was arrested for [[prostitution]] in 2005.<ref>[,2933,162112,00.html]. Retrieved February 24, 2006.</ref> As a [[multiracial]] family, the Carey household was met with racial slurs, hostility, and sometimes violence, causing the family to move frequently around the New York area. The strain on the family led to the divorce of Carey's parents when she was three years old. Carey had little contact with her father, and her mother worked several jobs to support the family.
Spending much of her time at home alone, Carey turned to music as an outlet. She began singing at the age of four, and first performed in public at the age of six. She began writing songs while in grade school, and her mother and the members of her opera company were impressed with her talents when Carey hit a cue note that her mother had missed. Carey attended and graduated from Oldfield Middle School and [[Harborfields High School]] in [[Greenlawn, New York]], although she was frequently absent due to efforts to break into the music business. After moving to [[New York City]] and completing five hundred hours of beauty school, she eventually landed a role as a backup singer for [[Brenda K. Starr]].
In 1988, Carey met [[Columbia Records]] executive [[Tommy Mottola]] at a party, where Starr gave him a demo tape. Mottola played the tape while leaving the party and was very impressed by what he heard. He returned to the party to find Carey, but she had already left. Nevertheless, Mottola tracked her down and signed her to a recording contract. This ''[[Cinderella]]''-like story became part of the standard [[publicity]] surrounding Carey's entrance into the industry.
===1990&ndash;1992: Early commercial success===
Carey's professional music career began with the release of her [[eponym]]ous [[debut album]], ''[[Mariah Carey (album)|Mariah Carey]]'', in 1990. Carey co-wrote all of the compositions on the album with songwriter-producers such as [[Ric Wake]] and [[Rhett Lawrence]], and would continue to co-write nearly all of her material for the rest of her career. The album ascended to number one on the U.S. [[Billboard 200]] chart a year after its release, where it remained for eleven weeks. It produced four number-one singles, making Carey a star in the United States. Elsewhere, however, the album's success was limited. In 1991, Carey won her first two [[Grammy Award]]s for [[Grammy Award for Best New Artist|Best New Artist]] and [[Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance|Best Female Pop Vocal Performance]] for her debut single "[[Vision of Love]]".
[[Image:IBT.jpg|left|thumb|200px|Carey performing on ''[[MTV Unplugged]]'' in 1992.]]
''[[Emotions (album)|Emotions]]'', Carey's second album, was released in the fall of 1991 to critical and commercial success. Britain's ''[[Q magazine|Q]]'' magazine described ''Emotions'' as "a technically perfect example of mainstream R&B...[it] sashays with the customary elegance of a multi-million dollar production, and Carey's pipes fine fettle".<ref>"''Emotions''". ''[[Q magazine|Q]]'' magazine. p. 142, October 1991.</ref> Its first single, the title track "[[Emotions (song)|Emotions]]", gave Carey the distinction of being the only recording act in history to have their first five singles reach number-one on the U.S. [[Billboard Hot 100|Hot 100]] chart,<ref>''The Guinness Book of Records 1998'' (1997). UK: Guinness Publising Ltd. ISBN 0851120474 (UK).</ref> but the album's follow-up singles failed to maintain this feat. Carey had been lobbying for the ability to produce her own songs, and beginning with ''Emotions'', would co-produce most of her material. She would also begin writing and producing for other artists, such as [[Penny Ford]] and [[Daryl Hall]], within the coming year.
Although she had fulfilled several concert dates to support her debut album, Carey had not embarked on any major public tours. Her first widely-seen concert appearance was on the television show ''[[MTV Unplugged]]'' in May 1992, and her performance proved that her vocal abilities were not, as some had previously speculated, simulated using studio techniques. In addition to acoustic versions of some of her earlier songs, Carey premiered a [[cover version|cover]] of [[The Jackson 5]]'s "[[I'll Be There]]" on the special with back-up singer [[Trey Lorenz]]. The duet was released as a single and became Carey's sixth number-one hit in the U.S., while her ''Unplugged'' setlist was later released on the EP ''[[MTV Unplugged (EP)|MTV Unplugged]]''. ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]'' called it "the strongest, most genuinely musical record she has ever made...Did this live performance help her take her first steps toward growing up?".<ref>Sandow, Greg. "''MTV Unplugged EP''". ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]''. [[June 19]] [[1992]]. <!-- --></ref>
===1993&ndash;1996: Worldwide popularity===
Carey, then 23, and Tommy Mottola, 43, had become romantically involved, and in June 1993 they were married in an [[Episcopal|Episcopalian]] ceremony in [[Manhattan]]. Her third studio album, ''[[Music Box (album)|Music Box]]'', was released later that year, and became her most successful album worldwide. It yielded her first UK number-one hit, a cover of [[Badfinger]]'s "[[Without You]]", as well as the U.S. number-one singles "[[Dreamlover]]" and "[[Hero (Mariah Carey song)|Hero]]". Carey's attempt at a mellower work than her previous efforts was met with generally positive reviews, with ''Billboard'' magazine proclaiming it as "heart-piercing...easily the most elemental of Carey's releases, her vocal eurythmics in natural sync with the songs".<ref>White, Timothy. "Mariah Carey's stirring 'Music Box'". ''[[Billboard magazine|Billboard]]''. New York: p. 5, [[August 28]] [[1993]], Vol. 105, Iss. 35.</ref> Some were less praiseful: ''[[All Music Guide]]'' said Carey "blended into the background and let the tracks guide her, instead of pushing and exploding through them",<ref>Wynn, Ron. [ ''Music Box'' - Review]. ''[[All Music Guide]]''. Retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref> and ''[[Rolling Stone]]''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s Stephen Holden criticised "Carey's lyrics, which are made up entirely of pop and [[soul music|soul]] clichés".<ref>Holden, Stephen. [ ''Music Box'']. ''[[Rolling Stone]]''. 1993. Retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref>
[[Image:OSD.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Carey and [[Boyz II Men]] recording "[[One Sweet Day]]" (1995), one of Carey's most successful singles.]]
Following a hit duet with [[Luther Vandross]] of [[Diana Ross]]' "[[Endless Love (song)|Endless Love]]", Carey released the holiday album ''[[Merry Christmas (album)|Merry Christmas]]'' in late 1994. In addition to covers of traditional Christmas songs, it contained a very successful original holiday song, "[[All I Want for Christmas Is You]]". The single became her first number-one hit in [[Japan]] and was described as "a well-crafted [[Phil Spector]] tribute" by Roch Parisien, who dismissed ''Merry Christmas'' as an "otherwise vanilla set".<ref>Parisien, Roch. [ ''Merry Christmas'' - Review]. ''[[All Music Guide]]''. Retrieved August 18, 2005.</ref> The album was popular with the public, becoming one of the most successful Christmas albums of all time.
In 1995 Carey released ''[[Daydream (album)|Daydream]]'', which combined the pop sensibilities of ''Music Box'' with modern R&B and [[hip hop music|hip hop]] influences. It became her largest-selling LP in the U.S., and its singles achieved similar success: "[[Fantasy (Mariah Carey song)|Fantasy]]" became only the second single to debut at number-one in the U.S. and spent twelve weeks at number one in Canada, "[[One Sweet Day]]" (a duet with [[Boyz II Men]]) spent a still-record sixteen weeks at number one, and "[[Always Be My Baby]]" appeared at number one on the 1996 year-end [[airplay]] charts. ''Daydream'' generated career-best reviews for Carey and was named one of 1995's best albums by publications such as the ''[[New York Times]]'', who wrote that its "best cuts bring pop candy-making to a new peak of textural refinement" and noted that Carey's songwriting "has taken a leap forward, becoming more relaxed, sexier and less reliant on thudding cliches".<ref>Holden, Stephen. "Mariah Carey Glides Into New Territory". ''[[New York Times]]''. p. 76, [[October 13]] [[1995]]. <!-- --></ref> Carey was the recipient of several awards following the success of the album and received six Grammy nominations, but lost in all categories.
===1997&ndash;2000: Independence and new image===
Carey and Mottola separated in 1997. Although she had often projected the image of a happy marriage to the public, in reality she had felt emotionally and psychologically abused by Mottola, whom she often described as controlling. Their divorce became final the following year.
[[Image:Honey.jpg|left|thumb|200px|The lyrics and [[music video]] for "[[Honey (song)|Honey]]" (1997) presented a more overtly sexual image of Carey than had been previously seen.]]
Carey's 1997 album ''[[Butterfly (album)|Butterfly]]'' saw her continuing to move in an R&B/hip hop direction, while the lyrics and [[music video]] for lead single "[[Honey (song)|Honey]]" presented a more overtly sexual image of Carey than had been previously seen. "[[My All]]" (the album's fifth single) was her thirteenth U.S. number-one, an unprecedented feat for a female artist. J.R. Reynolds said ''Butterfly'' "pushes the envelope", a move that he thought "may prove disconcerting to more conservative fans", but Reynolds still praised the album as "a welcome change".<ref>Reynolds, J.R. [ Album Review: ''Butterfly'']. [[Yahoo! Music]]. September 16, 1997. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref> A review in the ''[[Los Angeles Times]]'' said: "[''Butterfly''] is easily the most personal, confessional-sounding record she's ever done...Carey-bashing just might become a thing of the past".<ref>Johnson, Connie. ''[[Los Angeles Times]]''. p. 58, [[September 14]] [[1997]].</ref> 1997 also marked the year that Carey became a major songwriter and producer for other artists, contributing to the debut albums of [[Allure (group)|Allure]], [[7 Mile]] and [[Blaque]]. She also wrote songs for the soundtracks to the films ''[[Men in Black (film)|Men in Black]]'' (1997) and ''[[How the Grinch Stole Christmas]]'' (2000), and began to develop her own film/soundtrack project, ''[[Glitter (film)|All That Glitters]]''. Towards the turn of the millennium Carey became a prominent figure in hip hop music, and collaborated with both new and established rappers.
During 1998, Carey had a romance with [[New York Yankees]] [[baseball]] player [[Derek Jeter]], who was also biracial. She would state later that while the timing was not right for their relationship, it did teach her that multiracial families could function well.<ref>Rader, Dotson. [ I Had To Get My Faith Back]. ''[[PARADE]]''. June 5, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref> That year saw the release of the album ''[[Number 1's (Mariah Carey album)|#1's]]'', a collection of her U.S. number-one singles up to that point. Included amongst the new material on the album was "[[When You Believe]]", a duet with [[Whitney Houston]] recorded for the soundtrack to ''[[The Prince of Egypt]]'' that won an [[Academy Award]] for [[Academy Award for Best Song|Best Song]]. The album sold well, but a review in ''[[NME]]'' magazine labelled Carey "a purveyor of saccharine bilge like 'Hero', whose message seems wholesome enough: that if you vacate your mind of all intelligent thought, flutter your eyelashes and wish hard, sweet babies and honey will follow".<ref></ref> Also that year she appeared on the first televised ''[[VH1 Divas]]'' [[benefit concert]] program with singers such as [[Aretha Franklin]] and [[Shania Twain]], though Carey's alleged [[prima donna]] behavior had already led many to consider her a [[diva]].<ref>Haring, Bruce. [ Mariah: I'm Not A Diva]. [[Yahoo! Music]]. May 14, 1998. Retrieved December 9, 2005.</ref> By the following year, she had begun a relationship with singer [[Luis Miguel]].
''[[Rainbow (Mariah Carey album)|Rainbow]]'', Carey's sixth studio album, was released in 1999. Like ''Butterfly'', it was comprised of pop and more R&B/hip hop-oriented songs; Carey intended them to express her feelings about her divorce two years previously. Both "[[Heartbreaker (Mariah Carey song)|Heartbreaker]]" and "[[Thank God I Found You]]" &mdash; the former featuring [[Jay-Z]], the latter featuring [[Joe Thomas|Joe]] and boyband [[98 Degrees]] &mdash; reached number one in the U.S. However, despite several other collaborations with artists such as [[Usher (entertainer)|Usher]] and [[Snoop Dogg]], ''Rainbow'' became her lowest-selling LP up to that point. Reviews were not as favourable as those of her previous releases, with ''[[The Washington Post]]'' characterising the album as "a major disappointment".<ref>Harrington, Richard. "Mariah Carey's Lackluster 'Rainbow'". ''[[The Washington Post]]''. p. C.01, [[November 3]] [[1999]] [FINAL Edition].</ref> Although the recipient of several awards in recognition of her decade-spanning career such as [[Billboard Music Awards|Billboard's Artist of the Decade Award]] and the World Music Award for the world's Best-Selling Female Artist of the Millennium, a further sign of decline appeared when the [[double A-side]] "[[Crybaby (song)|Crybaby]]"/"[[Can't Take That Away]]" (the final release from ''Rainbow'') became her first single to peak outside of the U.S. top twenty. Via her website, Carey publicly accused Sony of mishandling the release of the single.
===2001&ndash;2004: Personal and career struggles===
Following a successful decade at Columbia Records, Carey finally ended her contract and signed a five-album deal with [[EMI]]'s [[Virgin Records]] worth a reported US$80 million. Just a few months later in July 2001, it was widely reported that Carey had suffered a physical and emotional breakdown. She had left voicemail messages on her website (which were quickly removed) to her fans complaining of being overworked, and her relationship with Luis Miguel was ending. Carey made a notorious appearance on [[MTV]]'s ''Total Request Live'', where she handed out [[popsicle]]s to the teen-aged audience and began what was later described by some as a "strip tease".<ref>[ Carey Shocked by MTV Striptease Fuss]. [[Internet Movie Database]]. December 3, 2002. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref><ref>[ Strip Tease] MTV video Clip. Retrieved [[February 26]], 2006.</ref> By the month's end Carey had checked into a psychiatric hospital, and her publicist announced that she would be taking a break from public appearances.<ref name="CNN-Aug2001">Cook, Shanon. [ Mariah before breakdown -- 'It all seems like one continuous day']. [[CNN]]. August 14, 2001. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref>
[[Image:NTFS.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A scene from Carey's poorly-received star vehicle ''[[Glitter (film)|Glitter]]'' (2001).]]
Her much delayed semi-autobiographical film, titled ''[[Glitter (film)|Glitter]]'', was panned by most critics upon its release and became a box office failure (see [[#Acting career|below]]). Its soundtrack album ''[[Glitter (Mariah Carey album)|Glitter]]'', released by Virgin, generated her worst showing to date on the U.S. charts. Kevin C. Johnson of the ''[[St. Louis Post-Dispatch]]'' dismissed the album as "an absolute mess that'll go down as an annoying blemish on a career that, while not always critically heralded, was at least nearly consistently successful",<ref>Johnson, Kevin C. "Mariah Carey's New "Glitter" Is a Far Cry from Golden". ''[[St. Louis Post-Dispatch]]''. p. F.5, [[September 16]] [[2001]] [FIVE STAR LIFT Edition].</ref> while ''[[Blender (magazine)|Blender]]'' thought: "After years of trading her signature flourishes for a radio-ready purr, [Carey]'s left with almost no presence at all".<ref>"''Glitter''". ''[[Blender (magazine)|Blender]]''. p. 118, August&ndash;September 2001.</ref> Lead single "[[Loverboy (song)|Loverboy]]" reached number two on the Hot 100 thanks to a price cut,<ref name="CNN-Aug2001"/> but the album's follow-up singles all failed to chart.
Shortly after the disastrous release of ''Glitter'' and just before Christmas, Columbia released a second compilation album, the 2-CD ''[[Greatest Hits (Mariah Carey album)|Greatest Hits]]''. In early 2002, Virgin decided to drop Carey from their roster and they bought out her contract for $28 million, as an addition to the $21 million paid the previous year when signing, giving her another round of bad publicity. Later that year, she signed a three-album contract with [[Island Records]]' [[Def Jam]]. To add further to Carey's emotional burdens, her father died of cancer.
Following a well-received supporting role in the independent film ''[[WiseGirls]]'' (see [[#Acting career|below]]), Carey released a new album, ''[[Charmbracelet]]'', which she said marked "a new lease on life" for her.<ref name="USAToday-Nov2002">Gardner, Elysa. [ Mariah Carey, 'standing again']. ''[[USA Today]]''. November 28, 2002. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref> ''Charmbracelet'' sold poorly, and the quality of Carey's vocals, which had previously been perceived as her strong point, came under severe criticism. The ''[[Boston Globe]]'' declared the album as "the worst of her career, revealing a voice no longer capable of either gravity-defying gymnastics or soft coos",<ref>Anderman, Joan. "For Carey, the Glory's Gone but the Glitter Lives On". ''[[Boston Globe]]''. p. D.4, [[September 10]] [[2003]] [THIRD Edition].</ref> and Barry Walters of ''Rolling Stone'' commented: "Carey needs bold songs that help her use the power and range for which she is famous. ''Charmbracelet'' is like a stream of watercolors that bleed into a puddle of brown".<ref>Walters, Barry. "''Charmbracelet''". ''[[Rolling Stone]]''. New York: p. 93, [[December 12]] [[2002]], iss. 911.</ref> Singles such as "[[Through the Rain]]" failed both on the charts and with pop radio, whose playlists had become less open to maturing "diva" stylists such as Carey, Whitney Houston and [[Celine Dion|Céline Dion]].<ref name="USAToday-Nov2002"/>
"[[I Know What You Want]]", Carey's 2003 duet with [[Busta Rhymes]] recorded for his eighth album, fared considerably better and reached the top five in the U.S. Columbia later included it on the remix collection ''[[The Remixes (Mariah Carey album)|The Remixes]]'', which failed to find an audience and became Carey's lowest-selling album. That year, she was awarded the "Diamond Award" by the World Music Awards show in honour of selling over 150 million albums worldwide.<ref>[ Awards]. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref><ref>[ Diamond Award]. [[World Music Awards]]. Retrieved August 19, 2005.</ref> She was featured on rapper [[Jadakiss]]' single "[[U Make Me Wanna]]" in 2004, which reached the top ten of Billboard's R&B/Hip-Hop Singles chart.
===2005&ndash;present: "Return of the Voice"===
[[Image:Dont4getaboutus.jpeg|left|thumb|200px|"[[Don't Forget About Us]]" (2005) has tied Carey with [[Elvis Presley]] for the most U.S. number-one singles by a solo recording artist.]]
Carey's ninth studio album, ''[[The Emancipation of Mimi]]'', was released in 2005. It was advertised as "The Return of the Voice", though Carey maintained that the voice had always been there.<ref name="YahooMusic-Mar2005">[ Mariah Carey Ads Say The Voice Will Be Back, But She Says It Never Left]. [[Yahoo! Music]]. March 28, 2005. Retrieved December 9, 2005.</ref> ''[[Slant (magazine)|Slant]]'' magazine wrote: "whatever the songs lack, they make up for in restraint &ndash; brevity keeps you wanting more".<ref>[]</ref> A critic for ''[[The Guardian]]'' defined it as "a tough cookie of an album" and "cool, focused and urban...the first Mariah Carey tunes in years I wouldn't have to be paid to listen to again".<ref>Sullivan, Caroline. [,11712,1449385,00.html Mariah Carey, ''The Emancipation of Mimi'']. ''[[The Guardian]]''. April 1, 2005. Retrieved December 9, 2005.</ref> It became the year's best-selling album in the U.S. (the first by a female solo artist to do so since 1996) and won a Grammy Award for [[Grammy Award for Best Contemporary R&B Album|Best Contemporary R&B Album]]. Its second single, "[[We Belong Together]]," became the biggest hit of 2005 and Carey's career: it topped the U.S. charts for fourteen weeks, reached number one in several other countries, was honored as the world's most-played single of the year at the World Music Awards and received two Grammys. "[[Don't Forget About Us]]" became Carey's seventeenth number-one in the U.S., tying her with [[Elvis Presley]] for the most number-ones by a solo artist according to ''Billboard'' magazine's revised methodology (their own statician, however, credits Presley with an eighteenth).<ref>Bronson, Fred. [ "Chart Beat Chat"]. ''[[Billboard magazine|Billboard]]''. [[December 22]] [[2005]]. Retrieved [[February 16]] [[2006]].</ref> By this count Carey is behind only [[the Beatles]], who are currently credited with twenty number-one singles.
Producer [[Jermaine Dupri]], Carey's frequent collaborator, reported in early 2006 that he had arranged for her to record a duet with fellow R&B singer [[Janet Jackson]] for Jackson's ninth studio album.<ref></ref>
==Acting career==
Carey made her film debut as an opera singer and one of the former girlfriends of Jimmie ([[Chris O'Donnell]]) in ''[[The Bachelor (film)|The Bachelor]]'' (1999), a romantic comedy starring O'Donnell and [[Renée Zellweger]]. Critical response to Carey's cameo appearance was lukewarm: Paul Tatara from [[CNN]] derisively said Carey's casting as a talentless diva was "letter-perfect", and Tony Lee simply stated "no, she can't act".
Carey's first starring role was in ''Glitter'', a 2001 film that had been in [[development hell|development]] as a vehicle for Carey since 1997. In it she played Billie Frank, a struggling singer and songwriter who breaks into the music industry after she meets [[disc jockey|DJ]] Julian Dice ([[Max Beesley]]). Reviews were scathing; while [[Roger Ebert]] gave mild praise for Carey's performance, saying, "Her acting ranges from dutiful flirtatiousness to intense sincerity", most other critics panned it: Stephanie Zacharek called Carey "numbingly bland" in her role, and Michael Atkinson observed, "when she tries for an emotion&mdash;any emotion&mdash;she looks as if she's lost her car keys". ''Glitter'' was a box office failure, and Carey earned a [[Golden Raspberry Awards|Razzie Award]] for her role. She has since referred to the film as "a diva moment".<ref>[ Carey: 'Glitter' Was a Lighthearted Distraction From 9/11]. [[Internet Movie Database]]. April 12, 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2005.</ref>
[[Image:Carey Walters Sorvino in WiseGirls.jpg|thumb|right|220px|Carey, with [[Melora Walters]] and [[Mira Sorvino]], in ''[[WiseGirls]]'' (2002).]]
Carey next appeared co-starring with [[Mira Sorvino]] and [[Melora Walters]] as a tough-talking waitress in the [[independent film]] ''WiseGirls'', which premiered at the [[Sundance Film Festival]] in 2002. Critics who saw the film lauded Carey for her efforts: Kirk Honeycutt of the ''[[Hollywood Reporter]]'' predicted "Those scathing notices for ''Glitter'' will be a forgotten memory for the singer once people warm up to Raychel", and Roger Freidman, referring to her as "a [[Thelma Ritter]] for the new millennium", said "her line delivery is sharp and she manages to get the right laughs". ''WiseGirls'' producer [[Anthony Esposito]] cast Carey in another film, ''The Sweet Science'', about an unknown but talented boxer who is recruited by a determined female boxing manager. However, the project later fell into development hell, while ''WiseGirls'' was not given a theatrical release and went straight-to-cable in the United States.
Carey became one of several musicians to make cameo appearances in the independently-produced [[Damon Dash]] films ''[[Death of a Dynasty]]'' (2003) and ''[[State Property 2]]'' (2005). Her small-screen work has been more limited: she played a legal client of the title character in ''[[Ally McBeal]]'' in January 2002, and appeared in an episode of the animated children's series ''[[The Proud Family]]'' in October 2003.
Carey is credited as having a five-[[octave]] [[vocal range]]; she can cover all the notes from the [[alto (voice)|alto]] range leading to those of a [[coloratura]] [[soprano]].<ref>[ More like a screaming 'Mimi']. 12 April 2005.</ref> Her vocal trademark is her ability to sing in the [[whistle register]]. She has often been incorrectly credited as having a six or seven-octave vocal range. It has been suggested that Carey's publicists falsely claimed this at the start of her career,<ref>[ Debunking rumor: Mariah Carey possesses a seven-octave vocal range].</ref> although it may also be a misstatement of the fact that Carey frequently accesses the notes situated in the [[seventh octave]].
Carey's voice has come under minor scrutiny from some critics who believe that she does not effectively communicate the message of her songs. ''Rolling Stone'', in a negative review of the album ''Emotions'', wrote "Carey has a remarkable vocal gift, but to date, unfortunately, her singing has been far more impressive than full speed her range is so superhuman that each excessive note erodes the believability of the lyric she is singing"<ref>[]. Rolling Stone.</ref>, while others have referred to her high notes as "dog whistles."<ref>[ Review: The Emancipation Of Mimi]. BBC. 4 April 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2006.</ref><ref>Rich Juzwiak. [ Mariah Carey's Return to Formlessness]. Stylus magazine.</ref> In comparison, criticisms were levelled at what Carey herself described as "breathy" vocals in some of her later songs on albums such as ''Charmbracelet''. Said Carey, "Some people are of the opinion that if you have a big voice you should use it all the time...[but] I don't want to hear someone scream at me all the time".<ref name="YahooMusic-Mar2005"/>
Carey's voice, which is a continual subject of both positive and negative debate, was voted as the greatest voice in music in [[MTV]] and [[Blender (magazine)|''Blender Magazine'']]'s countdown of "[[MTV's 22 Greatest Voices in Music|The 22 Greatest Voices in Music]]", and is believed to have influenced singers such as [[Christina Aguilera]]<!-- please do not add other names to this sentence without citing your sources, please see to find out why --> and [[Kelly Clarkson]]. In [[Cove (magazine)|''Cove Magazine'']]'s poll of the "100 Outstanding Pop Vocalists", she placed second behind Aguilera.<ref>[ Cover Magazine]. 100 Outstanding Pop Vocalists.</ref>
==Other activities==
Carey is a philanthropist who has donated both time and millions of dollars to organizations such as the [[Make-A-Wish Foundation]], the National Adoption Center, VH1's Save the Music Foundation, and the [[Fresh Air Fund]] among many others. Carey is well-known nationally for her work with the Make-A-Wish Foundation in granting the wishes of the terminally ill Caleb Boulter, who called her "a very real person who overflows with compassion and love for others". As part of her involvement with the Fresh Air Fund, she is the co-founder of a camp located in [[Fishkill, New York]] that enables inner-city youth to embrace the arts, be introduced to career opportunities, and build self-esteem. The camp was named [[Camp Mariah]] in honour of Carey's work with the Fresh Air Fund, and she received a Congressional Award titled the Horizon Award for her charity work on behalf of children.
Carey performed as part of the ''[[America: A Tribute to Heroes]]'' nationally televised fundraiser in the aftermath of the [[September 11, 2001 attacks]], and in December 2001 she performed before U.S. peacekeeping troops in [[Kosovo]].
She hosted the CBS television special ''At Home for the Holidays with Mariah Carey'', which documented real-life stories of adopted children and foster families. In July 2005, Carey performed for [[Live 8]] at the [[Live 8 concert, London]] with the [[African Children's Choir]]. She was also a participant in the ''[[Shelter from the Storm]]'' telethon following [[Hurricane Katrina]]'s damage to the U.S. Gulf Coast later that year.
Carey, who considered writing her autobiography with [[David Ritz]], has instead chosen to fictionalize her life story and adapt it into a series of illustrated children's books titled ''Automatic Princess'', about an orphaned young girl who is biracial. Also forthcoming is a clothing and accessories line known as Automatic Princess, as well as a lingerie line, Kiss Kiss, which will be available for women in all sizes. Carey's fashion sense has itself often been criticized for exposing too much of her, or just being poorly put together.<ref>[]</ref>
{{further|[[Mariah Carey albums discography]]}}
#''[[Mariah Carey (album)|Mariah Carey]]'' (1990, 9× platinum)
#''[[Emotions (album)|Emotions]]'' (1991, 5× platinum)
#''[[MTV Unplugged (EP)|MTV Unplugged]]'' (1992, 3× platinum)
#''[[Music Box (album)|Music Box]]'' (1993, 10× platinum)
#''[[Merry Christmas (album)|Merry Christmas]]'' (1994, 5× platinum)
#''[[Daydream (album)|Daydream]]'' (1995, 10× platinum)
#''[[Butterfly (album)|Butterfly]]'' (1997, 5× platinum)
#''[[Number 1's (Mariah Carey album)|#1's]]'' (1998, 5× platinum)
#''[[Rainbow (Mariah Carey album)|Rainbow]]'' (1999, 3× platinum)
#''[[Glitter (Mariah Carey album)|Glitter]]'' (2001, platinum)
#''[[Greatest Hits (Mariah Carey album)|Greatest Hits]]'' (2001, platinum)
#''[[Charmbracelet]]'' (2002, platinum)
#''[[The Remixes (Mariah Carey album)|The Remixes]]'' (2003, n/a)
#''[[The Emancipation of Mimi]]'' (2005, 6× platinum)

Revision as of 22:13, August 19, 2007






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